By: T.M Rita Istari
In the year 1830 the Dutch colonial government run cultuurstelsel in Indonesia, especially in Java. Cultuurstelsel, in Dutch is the official term for the traditional way of production with the production of rational, also called the term "plant forced" by the liberal who is anti because it is considered as the business of government in its implementation using the method of coercion. (Mudjanto; 1987; 17).
The Dutch colonial government forced the plant because the treasury is empty, due to some of the war in Java and failure in the land tax. So the idea to blackmail emerged dependency that have agricultural backgrounds to fill the vacancy in the treasury. Fuse idea is the forced cultivation Johannes van den Bosch, an advisory king Willem I, which was then appointed Governor General in Indonesia. He is very sure you will see the success of the idea of land in the fertile and much labor are taken from the village that is quite dense. Basically it means planting forced exploitation recovery system must be delivering the VOC had practiced during the first power.
As is known that around the XVIII century BC government officially moved from Indonesia to the VOC of the Dutch colonial government. Between VOC exploitation system with the colonial government there are similarities in terms of delivering the required results of agricultural countryside, even though implementation is slightly different, the Dutch colonial government's direct relationship with the farmers that effectively guarantee the flow of export crops in the desired amount without having to the first regent and head of the village (Sartono; 1976; 75).
Cultivation prefer the increased force production of export crops are in demand in the European market. For the colonial government introduced the export crops to farmers in Java. But in the implementation of the forced cultivation of organisms used as the village: namely land, and labor leaders, who are one entity that can not be separated. To three factors that, when the organization can provide the good results of high export production.
Implementation of the forced cultivation, in reality, not in accordance with the regulations at that time. According to the regulations, the colonial government should make a covenant with the people first, but in practice, be done without agreement with the villagers and with the previous constraint. So, it happens a lot and abuse of power done by the colonial officials, regents and the head of the village itself cause pain relief in the village concerned. Regent and head of the village rather than working to serve the interests of people of the village but to the colonial government or for the sake of personal dignity and decline to create authority officials concerned and also regarded as a man of the colonial government. (Elizabeth, 1988; 4).
During the forced cultivation, the types of plants are separated in 2 categories, namely: 1). Annual crops: sugar cane, indigo, tobacco. 2). Plant loud: coffee, tea, pepper, quinine, cinnamon. (Greerts; 1983; 56).
Colonial government in an effort to improve crop production eksportnya determine the benefit of the sugar cane and coffee. Sugar cane crops are annual crops that require irrigation, and can be planted in the field, so it can be possible to plant sugar cane and rice alternately. While planting sugar cane is not enough if only rely on the expansion of land, without offset by irrigation roads and so forth. The villagers have basically a high social life, so that they do work with the spirit of "gotongroyong" (means: work together, helping each other in a society) and family, this is the case that abused by the colonial authorities and the government to employ them and give the minimum wage. (Boeke, 1983; 25).
The establishment of sugar factories means that many rural land used for planting sugar cane. Results of sugar cane production should lead to increased energy require many of the villagers.
Based on experience in the work force this regime to make the private benefit from the large sugar contract with the colonial government. The authorities began the private use "work-free" is a wage based on coercion but not based on voluntary consent. Travel and transportation equipment was up because European authorities in the attempt to make the expansion. (Burger, 1977; 204).
Implementation of the forced cultivation takes place in more or less than 40 years and provides good results for the colonial government so that they can build in all areas. While the population in particular, give the impact in the field of social and economic, among others:
1. In the field of agriculture, especially in the agrarian structure does not lead to differences between the employer and the small farmers worker as a slave, but the occurrence of social and economic homogeneous who have principles on equity in the distribution of land. (Sartono; 1987; 321).
2. Ties between the village and the stronger it is even prevent the development of the village itself. Why such things happen? Because people prefer to live in the village, causing the occurrence of backwardness and lack of insight for the development of the life of the population.
1. With the forced cultivation is causing the system to know the wages of workers, previously not recognized by the people, they prefer the system of cooperation and look "gotongroyong" especially in port cities and in the sugar factories.
2. In the implementation of the forced cultivation, the village required to submit some agriculture land planted to export crops, and many happen to rent a property to rent in the colonial government by force. Thus the results of increased export crop production, causing plantation plantation-private is disposed for participating in the Indonesian agriculture in the future. (Burger, 1977; 18).
Result from the forced cultivation of this is the occurrence of "work order" that is a labor for which wages are given without reasonable cause increased hardship for the workers. Working order by the colonial form of government sustainable-development such as roads, roads, bridges, reservoirs, houses (Pesanggrahan) to colonial government officials, and fortresses for the colonial army. In addition, the village where is required and keep the government buildings, transport documents, goods and so forth. Thus people were doing various jobs for the sake of personal staff and head of a colonial village-head itself.
The impact of the plant is forced accidentally also assist the progress of the Indonesian people, in terms of modernization and prepare to open the way for private companies for the Indonesian people themselves.
By: T.M Rita Istari